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Basic components of computer system security
”Computer security” is frequently associated with three core areas, which can be conveniently summarized by the acronym “CIA”
Confidentiality- Ensuring that information is not accessed by the unauthorized person.
Integrity- Ensuring that information is not altered by in authorized persons in a way that is not detectable by authorized users.
Authentication- Ensuing that user is the persons they claim to be.
”Computer security” is not restricted to these three broad concepts. Additional ideas that are often considered part of the taxonomy of computer security include.
Access control – Ensuring that users access only those resources and services that they are entitled to access and that qualified users are not denied access to services that they legitimately expect to receive.
Nonrepudiation- Ensuring that the originators of a message cannot deny that they, in fact, sent the messages.
Availability – Ensuring that a system is operational and function at a given moment, usually provided through redundancy, loss of availability is often referred to as “denials of service”.
Privacy – Ensuring that individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them, how it is used, who has used it who maintains it, and what purpose is used for.
Before you learn how to make your computer secure, you should be well aware of the threats, attacks and possible damages being familiar with these and how to Battle them necessary to ensure the security of a computer.
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computer security threats
A threat is a potential violation of security. when a threat is actually executed, it becomes an attack. Those who execute such action, or cause them to be executed are called attackers.
Some common threats the average computer user faces every day are being given below.
* Viruses : * worms * Trojans
*PC intrusion: * Denial of service *Sweeping * Password Guessing. *Phishing
Computer viruses are ”malicious” codes/programs that cause damage to data and files on a system.viruses can attack any part of a computer’s software such as boot block, operating system, system areas, files, and application- program-macros. Two other similar programs also cause virus-like effects.
Worms. – A worm is a self a replicating program which eats up the entire disk space or memory. A worm keeps on creating its copies until all the disk space or memory is filled.
Trojan Horses- A trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but actually performs malicious functions such as deleting or damaging files.
Damage caused by viruses
Damage or delete files- some viruses may delete or damage random documents or specific files that are crucial to your operating system for Ex- operating system files. This damage can range from rendering useless just a few files to affecting your entire computer, possibly requiring you to reinstall your operating system and start from scratch.
Slow down your computer -Viruses can run in the background, without being seen, and may cause your computer to run extremely slow.
Invade your email program -some forms of the virus may wreak even more havoc by spreading themselves to the contacts in your address book.
Common Types of viruses
Boot sector viruses – these infect the master boot record of your hard drive and are loaded into memory each time your system starts.
File viruses – also called the program or parasitic viruses these attach themselves to executable programs and are loaded into memory.
Macro viruses– These are written in macro languages used by application such as Microsoft word and typically infect system by e-mail .since macro viruses use application , they can be multiplatform ,infecting computers running different operating system but sharing the same application
Multipartite viruses -These are viruses that are a combination of boot sector and file viruses.
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